Category Archives: crafts

barking possibilities

At this time of year, when everything warms up, new growth is springing up everywhere and the sap is in full flow it is easy to peel bark from many trees. Bark has been used for thousands of years as a useful source of shelter (bark sheets or shingles), containers or carriers (for water or food) or to make cordage to lash, join or stitch things. On a grand scale you could even make a canoe out of it.

IMG_20150513_184146829

In this country several species of tree bark has been frequently used – birch, willow, cherry, linden (lime) are all on this list. Their bark can be thick and supple when green. It dries rock hard.

Today I popped out the back and wandered through the bluebell infused woods and happened across a recently fallen young willow tree. Fallen trees are good because stripping bark because it damages and can even kill the tree (ever heard of ‘ring barking’?). If you only require a small piece of bark you can take a vertical section from the trunk or use a good section of side branch. But remember this is damaging so please have a conscience.

Here is a quick step-by-step as I cut edges to the bark, loosened it (this can be done by gently tapping the bark with another piece of wood) and then getting a wedged piece of wood and/or your hands under the bark to ease it off. It should come away in one strip.

The last couple of pictures show that I have lashed it to something cylinderical (it could even be placed back on the trunk/limb you took it from. This helps the long edges from curling as it dries. Another good tip is to cut, trim, chamfer, punch holes or use it when green or semi-green as it is softer, more flexible and easier to work. Often taken the very outer layer of the bark off (by scraping) can help the hole piece be less brittle when it dries.

A word of caution too. Under the bark maybe very sharp little growths – as you will see from the pictures below – they can cut fingers if you go at it too quickly!

IMG_20150513_183040299

IMG_20150513_183729006

IMG_20150513_183828984

IMG_20150513_184146829

IMG_20150513_184857405

Careful of those sharp bits under the bark! See below.

IMG_20150513_184929060

ouch! sharp bits….

IMG_20150513_185257314

IMG_20150513_185319730

IMG_20150513_191119159

IMG_20150513_192708136_20150514094300424

If you are interested in some of the things you can make from bark then take a look at these posts:

Making a bark container

Bark cordage


making a bark container

 

cherry-bark-container

There are many ways to make bark containers. This is a cherry bark container and is fairly water-resistant due to the application of pitch-glue on the seams and a lid rimmed with a leather bung-strip.

Here is a step-by-step guide:

Cut your self a smooth, straight, unblemished bit of timber. If you can avoid knots and side shoots or branches then this would be preferred. Its circumference should be slightly larger than the container you plan to make – this is because the bark you take off will slightly overlap at the join so it loses a bit of its diameter.

IMG_20140627_200713577

Slit the bark down its length. Cherry has a very thick inner bark and a thin outer bark.

IMG_20140627_174148948

Strip the out bark off the inner bark. For this type of container this is cosmetically optional rather than, in woven containers, important because in that case it helps maintain a less brittle and more flexible bark for weaving.

IMG_20140627_174434529

Sharpen and flatten into a chisel shape a small green stick to push under the bark to help remove it from the timber. This really helps get the bark off in one piece.

IMG_20140627_174207346

Now the bark is now fully off the timber – and in one piece!

IMG_20140627_174854910

Next take the timber and cut two ’rounds’ or slices. One is for the lid – which should be a little thicker than the one for the base. The reason for the lid being thicker is you carve a lip into it so its wedges into the top rim, whereas the base sits flush.

IMG_20140627_175131267_HDR

Drill a hole in the lid with your knife from one side then the other.

IMG_20140627_175913448

This can take a short thong of leather (tied in a knot at either end) as handle by passing it thourhg the hole you have made in the lid.

Now,  run your knife around the mid-point of rim of the lid and remove a layer of wood all the way round.

IMG_20140627_175350215

IMG_20140627_175833125

IMG_20140627_175844474

image-5

Chamfer the edges. Leave to dry out. Leave the base to dry out aswell. Both will shrink a little.

Next, take the flat piece of removed bark and chamfer the edge which forms the main seam when you roll the bark back into its round shape. By skivving or chamfering the edge it helps it sit more flush as a seam and helps the base and the lid form a better seal.

IMG_20140627_204712861

IMG_20140627_204729738

IMG_20140627_204859422

After this is done it is time to dry the bark. Choose a slightly smaller diameter branch  – possibly a section from the branch you have cut but further up where it is smaller –  and wrap the bark section around it. It should easily fit and slightly overlap.

IMG_20140627_180215160

Because the bark will curl at its edges as it hardens and dries it is important to bind/lash the entire piece tight to the limb. You can do this by tightly wrapping some paracord or other string around the bark section multiple times before tying it off. Then leave for a few days in a dry place for it to season.

If you are stitching the piece together then making the holes in the overlapped piece of bark whilst green and soft is preferable. But in this case since I am using sap-pitch glue then there is no need.

Once dry, unbind the bark and it should naturally be rigid and overlap at the join.

IMG_20140627_180240604

Then it is a simple case of making some pitch glue. For this one I use the resin from the cherry tree itself which was conveniently exuding from several places on the tree. Otherwise you could make some from pine resin. Instructions on how to do that are here.

IMG_20140627_173107955

IMG_20140627_173241215

Its now a simple exercise to glue in the base and the main seam.

image-1

image-2

image-3

After that you have a finished container!

cherry-bark-container


willow bark cordage

imgp7107

Natural cordage comes in a number of guises – from plants (bark, stems, roots, leaves, and in some rare cases even the seed fluff from whorled milkweed and cottonwood) and from animals (guts, sinew, hide, and even hair). Bark cordage is very versatile mainly due to the continuous lengths you can create, reducing the need for labourious and weaker joining of strands.

Although many barks can be used and experimented with the most frequently cited come from young limbs (where the bark is smooth and thin) such as willow and the bark (often the trunk or a main limb) of the lime (linden) tree. Two different processes are involved in this process – the former is making thin strips from the bark to weave or twist together and the latter a process of harvesting sheets of bark and then wretting (rotting) the bark in water over a period of time to release the fibres from the bark – only then combining the fibres into cordage.

There are also certain times of year when harvesting bark is easier – usually in the spring and summer when the bark is looser due to the moisture and sap. In winter bark can be hard to separate from the the limb or trunk. If you have to source bark in the autumn and winter months then it can still be loosened by pounding the limbs in a gentle manner using another piece of wood. But be careful, you can weaken, split or damage the bark unless you tap/hammer the bark softly!

Here is a step-by-step guide to making willow cordage from a small diameter limb.

At the end is a video clip of how to make the cordage using two-ply pygmy roll.

imgp6613

Small limb, slit lengthwise the bark, either tap softly to loosen the bark from the underlying wood and/or run your fingers under the bark to separate

Imgp6617

Imgp6618

Imgp6614

Remove the very outermost later of skin from the bark by scraping with a back of a knife. Removing this will lead to a more flexible and less brittle cordage than leaving it on when it dries.

imgp6615

Stick your knife firmly into some wood and then draw the unfurled sheet of bark through the stuck knife thereby creating long strips

Imgp6620

The resultant long strips

imgp6687

Boil the bark strips for several hours in a pan filled with water and a generous handful of campfire ash. This not only stains the bark but increases its flexibility and durability for when it dries. Then partly dry it.

imgp7106

Video of how to twist fibres into string: the 2 ply pygmy roll method


chestnut spoon of truth

IMG_48895783103122

IMG_49084279980654

This spoon was carved in ‘reverse’ – meaning that instead of using the outer edge as the natural curve of the outside of the spoon’s bowl it was done the other way round – this created a totally different ‘ringed’ or bullseye grain decoration which is little more difficult to achieve. This spoon was made with grooves down each side of the handle for grip and three notches front and back. The outer bowl of the spoon has a ‘knifed’ finish like a hammered metal. This spoon, made of sweet chestnut represents: Honesty & Truth.

Spoons are used to convey love or bounty – they are symbolic, decorative and practical. They also use many of the grips and cuts you could use on other carving or whittling projects and are therefore useful things to practice making.

Chestnut is of the same family as oak, and likewise its wood contains many tannins. It has therefore been used in the leather tanning industry. This tannin renders the wood very durable, especially in contact with the ground. It is commonly used as fencing posts as a result too. The texture and grain of Chestnut is very similar to Oak and it can be confused. The bark is pretty unmistakeable with its long sinewy, twisty fissures. It coppices well. Although it is strong and durable it is easily split and also looses quite a bit of its durability (unlike oak) when it is older than 50 years. It can be quite a ‘spitty’ wood on the campfire too.

The sweet chestnut was introduced into Europe from Sardis, in Asia Minor; the fruit was then called the ‘Sardian nut’. It has been a staple food in southern Europe for thousands of years and largely replacing grain where these would not grow well in mountainous Mediterranean areas. Evidence of its cultivation by man is found since around 2000 B.C. Until the introduction of the potato, whole forest-dwelling communities which had scarce access to wheat flour relied on chestnuts as their main source of carbohydrate.

As a carving wood it is ‘nicer’ to carve than oak with a slightly finer grain, less prominent xylem, and warmer colour. It is also food safe and non-toxic.

IMG_48879986315472


whittling in the woods!

Whittling in the Woods

12-13 April

Dartmoor

By invitation only

48 hours in the springtime forest: just whittling

Rings, Spoons, Spatulas, Kuksa or Bowls

images (1)

Fancy whittling with Holly or Birch? Ash or Hazel? Oak or Larch? Chestnut or Cypress? Blackthorn or Hawthorn? Even blackcurrant wood, dogrose or spalted sycamore? The materials are all close by to harvest. Try your hand at making things from greenwood using an axe, knife, spoon-knife or adze.

Sit in the sunshine and whittle around the campfire. Cook over the open fire. Sleep on fragrant and soft fir boughs.

Kids welcome.

If you don’t fancy whittling then nature is everywhere for you to sit and observe or to follow!

Bring your own food to cook over the campfire. Please bring your own sleeping bags, mats and utensils. If you have your own carving knife and axe then please bring these along too!

 Instruction provided!

IMG_49084279980654


birch dugout ‘canoe’ bowl

DSCF9387

With the weather being so torrential over Christmas and New Year a sensible diversion was to whittle something around the fire to take my mind off the howling winds and floods. This bowl is made from fresh, green, silver birch from a site overlooking the windswept expanse of Dartmoor.

The task was made quicker with the use of a new tool, a Hans Karlsson Adze, available from here for hollowing out the bowl. You can, of course use a spoon/hook knife for this but it is slower and harder work. Other tools used were a Roselli Axe, a Mora BK120 carving knife and a custom made hook/spoon knife. I would recommend getting your greenwood working tools from Matthew Robinson at Woodland Craft Supplies.

Here are some pictures of it. Down the bottom are the stages taken in making it.

DSCF9389

DSCF9370

DSCF9380

DSCF9369

Here are the stages:

Splitting log with with either a froe, a wedge of a larger axe

IMG_58547655962423

IMG_58538870867208

Rough out with an axe and hollow out with adze

IMG_58531536364033

Using a carving knife shape the outside

IMG_58524366106466

Using a spoon/crook knife shape the inside

IMG_58515735460715

Start fine carving, decoration and refining handles and edges

IMG_58500445177512

Finished, oiled bowl

DSCF9378

DSCF9387

The woodland spot under grandmother larch I do most of my carving

IMG_61271282183127


using antler as a knife handle

DSCF9266

Antler is an ideal natural material for using as a knife handle. It is sustainable since it is shed every year by the bucks or stags after the rut. If you keep your eyes peeled you will find them scattered on the forest floor. Antler is amazingly strong – I have punched holes in sheet steel using antler, more frequently you will find me knapping flint using the strength and toughness of antler to crack and flake stone. As a natural material it is warm, tactile and offers a good amount of grip even when wet.

Using the crown of the antler as a knife handle is VERY easy. You can either leave the section you want as a handle in water for a month to soften or boiling it for an hour (depending on size) will do the same job – although trading some toughness in the bone – for speed. Whichever method you use the pithy, porous core of the antler becomes soft and you can then, with care, push it onto the tang of your blade. In a few hours the antler will dry out, shrink and grip the tang, then harden. A bit like natures epoxy.

  • Cut a length of antler – preferably the crown end (base) or if there is a decent sized tine (tip) – doing it this way ensures that the end of the handle is solid bone rather than porous ‘pith’ – the end of the tines and especially the base (crown) are often very solid.

DSCF9244

  • Make sure that the length of your tang is shorter than the length of handle – also be aware that the porous core becomes much more dense towards the crown or ends of a tine meaning that you will have trouble pushing the tang into this if it is too long.
  • Tidy up the section of antler: carve, sand and remove any tines that will limit its used as a handle. Be careful not to remove too much of the outer bone – you may expose the more porous core.

DSCF9245

  • Soak or boil the section of antler – the one pictured in this post was a small one and was boiled for about 45 minute.

DSCF9256

  • Get some tongs and a thick glove if you have boiled it – it will be HOT when you are due to remove it!
  • Tape or protect the blade or protect you from the blade. Either secure the blade in a vice (protecting the blade with some leather or padding from the vice jaws, or drive the knife into some wood securely so the tang points upwards.

DSCF9259

  • Simply take the softened antler out of the water and ensuring that you don’t cut or squewer yourself (ensure that the blade is well covered and you are also wearing a thick glove) firmly push the antler onto the blade.
  • DO NOT wiggle the blade to get it in it will ruin the fit of the antler against the tang. Do not pull it out to reposition it. You get one go at this – do it well!

DSCF9260

  • And that’s it…..let it dry and shrink onto the tang. Overnight will do.

DSCF9266

  • Then finish the knife off with a simple sheath.

antlerknife2